Heat pump systems

Reversing the natural heat flow direction

Heat flows naturally from a higher to a lower temperature. Heat pumps, however, are able to reverse this flow in the other direction. To do so, a relatively small amount of external energy, usually electricity, is required. In heat pumps, the heat transfer fluid is used as the heat transfer medium for the external circuits.

The mixture of heat transfer fluid and water transfers heat from the internal circuit to the heat pump.

Heat pumps transfer heat from natural heat sources in the surrounding areas such as air, ground or water, or from man-made heat sources such as industrial or domestic waste, to a building or an industrial application. Heat pumps can also be used for cooling. In this case, heat is transferred in the opposite direction, from the application that is cooled to surrounding areas at a higher temperature. Since heat pumps consume less primary energy compared to a conventional heating system, they have a positive effect in terms of reducing gas emissions that are harmful for the environment.

Examples of application areas:

  • Industrial heat pumps:
    Space heating, process water heating and cooling, steam production, drying process, evaporation and distillation processes.
  • Ground source heat pump:
    For example closed-loop systems where the heat transfer fluid circulates through pipes installed beneath the ground level. During the winter, the fluid collects heat from the earth and carries it through the system into the building. In summertime, the system reverses to cool the building by extracting heat from the building through the system into the ground. This process can heat up water for free in the summer and delivers substantial hot water savings in wintertime.
  • ‘Clean’ heating:
    Residential heating by heat pumps is supported by the governments of some countries as a step towards greater energy efficiency and reducting polluting conventional heating such as local oil or coal burners.

Recommended dosage:

  • 35-40% Zitrec© LC
  • Freezium -15 °C or -25 °C